The Evolution of APM

April 07 2015

How is APM shaping the future of the software-defined business? Read More.

In my previous post, I discussed the importance of APM. The APM market has evolved substantially over the years, mostly in an attempt to adapt to changing application technologies and deployments. When we had very simple applications that directly accessed a database then APM was not much more than a performance analyzer for a database. But as applications moved to the web and we saw the first wave of application servers then APM solutions really came into their own. At the time we were very concerned with the performance and behavior of individual moving parts, such as:

  • Physical servers and the operating system hosting our applications
  • JVM
  • Application server behavior
  • Application response time

We captured metrics from all of these sources and stitched them together into a holistic story. We were deeply interested in garbage collection behavior, thread and connection pools, operating system reads and writes, and so forth. Not to mention, we raised fatal alerts whenever a server went down. Advanced implementations even introduced the ability to trace a request from the web server that received it across tiers to any backend system, such as a database. These were powerful solutions, but then something happened to rock our world: the cloud.

The cloud changed our view of the world because no longer did we take a system-level view of the behavior of our applications, but rather we took an application-centric view of the behavior of our applications. The infrastructure upon which an application runs is still important, but what is more important is whether or not an application is able to execute its business transactions in a normal fashion. If a server goes down, we do not need to worry as long as the application business transactions are still satisfied. As a matter of fact, cloud-based applications are elastic, which means that we should expect the deployment environment to expand and contract on a regular basis. For example, if you know that your business experiences significant load on Fridays from 5pm-10pm then you might want to start up additional virtual servers to support that additional load at 4pm and shut them down at 11pm. The former APM monitoring model of raising alerts when servers go down would drive you nuts.

Furthermore, by expanding and contracting your environment, you may find that single server instances only live for a matter of a few hours. I have heard of one large cloud-based application that uses a very large amount of RAM in its JVMs, but its recycling strategy ensures that those servers are shut down before garbage collection ever has a chance to run. This might be an extreme example, but it illustrates that what was once one of the most impactful performance issues has been rendered a non-issue by a creative deployment model.

You may still find some APM solutions from the old world, but the modern APM vendors have seen these changes in the industry and have designed APM solutions to focus on your application behavior and have placed a far greater importance on the performance and availability of business transactions than on the underlying systems that support them.

Buy versus Build

This article has covered a lot of ground and now you’re faced with a choice: do you evaluate APM solutions and choose the one that best fits your needs or do you try to roll your own. I really think this comes down to the same questions that you need to ask yourself in any buy versus build decision: what is your core business and is it financially worth building your own solution? A previous post goes into the specific costs associated with buying an APM solution versus building your own in house, read it here.

If your core business is selling widgets then it probably does not make a lot of sense to build your own performance management system. If, on the other hand, your core business is building technology infrastructure and middleware for your clients then it might make sense (but see the answer to question two below). You also have to ask yourself where your expertise lies. If you are a rock star at building an eCommerce site but have not invested the years that APM vendors have in analyzing the underlying technologies to understand how to interpret performance metrics then you run the risk of leaving your domain of expertise and missing something vital.

The next question is: is it financially worth building your own solution? This depends on how complex your applications are and how downtime or performance problems affect your business. If your applications leverage a lot of different technologies (e.g. Java, .NET, PHP, web services, databases, NoSQL data stores) then it is going to be a large undertaking to develop performance management code for all of these environments. But if you have a simple servlet that calls a database then it might not be insurmountable.

Finally, ask yourself about the impact of downtime or performance issues on your business. If your company makes its livelihood by selling its products online then downtime can be disastrous. And in a modern competitive online sales world, performance issues can impact you more than you might expect. Consider how the average person completes a purchase: she typically researches the item online to choose the one she wants. She’ll have a set of trusted vendors (and hopefully you’re in that honored set) and she’ll choose the one with the lowest price. If the site is slow then she’ll just move on to the next vendor in her list, which means you just lost the sale. Additionally, customers place a lot of value on their impression of your web presence. This is a hard metric to quantify, but if your web site is slow then it may damage customer impressions of your company and hence lead to a loss in confidence and sales.

All of this is to say that if you have a complex environment and performance issues or downtime are costly to your business then you are far better off buying an APM solution that allows you to focus on your core business and not on building the infrastructure to support your core business.


Application Performance Management involves measuring the performance of your applications, capturing performance metrics from the individual systems that support your applications, and then correlating them into a holistic view. The APM solution observes your application to determine normalcy and, when it detects abnormal behavior, it captures contextual information about the abnormal behavior and notifies you of the problem. Advanced implementations even allow you to react to abnormal behavior by changing your deployment, such as by adding new virtual servers to your application tier that is under stress. An APM solution is important to your business because it can help you reduce your mean time to resolution (MTTR) and lessen the impact of performance issues on your bottom line. If you have a complex application and performance or downtime issues can negatively affect your business then it is in your best interested to evaluate APM solutions and choose the best one for your applications.

This article reviewed APM and helped outline when you should adopt an APM solution. In the next article, we’ll review the challenges in implementing an APM strategy and dive much deeper into the features of APM solutions so that you can better understand what it means to capture, analyze, and react to performance problems as they arise.

Steven Haines
Steven Haines is a technical architect at Piksel, currently working onsite at Disney in Orlando. He is the founder of, an online education website, and has written hundreds of Java-related articles as well as three books: Java 2 From Scratch, Java 2 Primer Plus, and Pro Java EE Performance Management and Optimization. He lives with his wife and two children in Apopka, Florida.

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